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Glossary
Bleed

A page that has images or colour areas that extend to the outer boundary of the finished project will often continue those elements outside of the finished area. This is done to allow a margin of error when being cut from a press sheet (so you don't little lines of white if the guillotine is off).

Booklet

A publication of less than 48 pages.

CMYK printing

Printing of coloured images by mixing four standard colours (CMYK) to produce a full coloured image.

CMYK, process color

Non-standard color reproduced in a printing process by mixing translucent Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black (CMYK) inks. In comparison, spot colors are standard, ready-made opaque colors with unique reference numbers.

Coating

External lamination and coating of the book cover to protect it from wear and tear.

Color separation

Cyan, magenta, and yellow are the three basic colors used for full color reproduction. In practice, due to limitations in the inks, the darker colors become dirty and muddied. To resolve this, a black separation is also created, which improves the shadow and contrast of the image. This printing technique is referred to as CMYK (the "K" being short for "black").

Color separation is the process of producing four different grayscale images, which printed onto each other with CMYK inks produce the printed colour image.

Copyediting

The work an editor does to improve the formatting, style, and accuracy of a manuscript. Copy-editing is done prior to the work of proofreaders, who handle documents before final publication.

CorelDraw

A popular program of Corel Corp. for creation and manipulation of vector graphics. The files have a name extension of CDR.

Cover (paperback, hard)

The covers of the printed books are generally of two types: paperback - typical of the cheaper publications, and hardcover, enforced with cardboard and sewn for extra strength - typical of the more serious and more expensive publications.

Creasing

Making a line by folding paper. Creasing ensures proper folding as a straight line of thicker papers or cardboards.

Cropping

Cropping refers to the removal of the outer parts of an image to improve framing, accentuate subject matter or change aspect ratio.

Doc files

Files of the popular text processing software Word of Microsoft.

Editing

Editing is revising to improve abstract and opinion-rooted characteristics like clarity, flow, organization, and development.

EPS

Encapsulated PostScript. A document file format that contains PostScript information for high-resolution graphics.

Etching

To cut into the surface of (glass, for example) by the action of acid.

The art of preparing etched plates, especially metal plates, from which designs and pictures are printed.

Etching a photo

Removing the background to use an object in a composition of objects.

Flash

A popular software of Macromedia (before), and now of Adobe Corp. for creation and processing of Internet animations.

Flier, flyer

A one-page, unfolded printed promotional piece.

Font formatting

Font formatting of a documents refers to the consistent use of fonts throughout the document with applied bold, italic, underlined, spaced and/or other text formatting options.

Font-size

The height of a character together with the amount of space between lines of text. Size is measured in points for printed text. Size 12 is normal for business use.

Format

1. The physical dimensions of a publication. Both trimmed and untrimmed format are in circulation. The trimmed format is smaller, since it is obtained from the respective untrimmed format by trimming on one or more sides (usually 3).

2. The characteristics of the text (font, font-size, case, italic, bold, black, small caps) and the paragraphs (indented or not, line-spacing, justification) in a publication.

Formatting

Formatting is the part of graphic design that handles the arrangement and style treatment of elements (content) on a page.

Form-cutting

A punch press is a type of machine press used for forming and cutting material. It can be small and manually operated and hold one simple Die set, or be very large, CNC operated, and hold a much larger and complex die set.

A Die set consists of a set of (male) punches and (female) dies which, when pressed together, may form a hole in a workpiece or may deform the workpiece in some desired manner, e.g., mark a crease.

Die sets permit the cutting and creasing of complex forms, e.g. for product packaging boxes.

Half title, bastard title

The half title, or bastard title, is a page carrying nothing but the title of a book, as opposed to the title page, which also lists subtitle, author, publisher and similar data.

Halftone

A method of generating on press or on a laser printer an image that requires varying densities or shades to accurately render the image. This is achieved by representing the image as a pattern of dots of varying size and density.

Imposition

The combination of many pages into a single signature form.

Imprint

A text block, listing some of the following publication-specific data: author, title, editor, proofreader, edition, print run, format, publisher, ISBN, etc.

ISBN

An abbreviation of International Standard Book Number. An unique code for each book published in the world. Since January 1, 2007, the ISBN codes contain 13 digits, which majes them compatuble with the universal product identifiers and barcodes EAN-13.

ISSN

An abbreviation of International Standard Serial Number. Essentially the same as ISBN, but applies to periodicals like magazines.

JPG

An abbreviation of Joint Pictures Expert Group - the committee which set standards for a file format for graphics. The JPEG file format is a compressed format, with some loss of quality during compression. A popular web format to achieve generally small size of pictures. File name extensions: .jpg, .jpeg, and .jpe.

Knock-out type

Òext that is knocked out (i.e., removed) or reversed out of a dark background so that the type appears in the color of the paper.

Leaflet

A printed sheet folded vertically in the center to produce four/six/eight pages.

Lines per inch

Halftone screens are measured in lpi (how many distinct lines can be printed in an inch - usually ranging from 55-200).

Newspapers print photos at 65 to 85 lpi producing coarse looking screens. The normal printing process uses 133 to 150 line screens. The industry rule of thumb is to scan your photos at two times the lpi they are going to be printed at. The more lines per inch, the more detailed the printed image will be.

Make-ready sheets

Preparatory work to press printing is done by running paper through the press and printing waste pages while adjusting the press to improve quality. As soon as the pressman is satisfied, the make-ready sheets are, and printing begins. Similar paper spoilage results in the folding and binding areas.

Average paper spoilage rate amounts to 5-10 % of the actual print run.

Margins

The blank space bordering the written or printed area on a page.

Mark-up

Instructions regarding the structure of text or how it is to be displayed. Markup languages have been in use for centuries, and in recent years have also been used in computer typesetting and word-processing systems.

Mirror, wrong reading, right reading

Postscript printers and certain software support mirror printing, where the text or image is printed reversed as if reflected in a mirror. Sometimes mirroring is called flipping (horizontal or vertical), or normal and mirror images are designated as "right reading" and "wrong reading", respectively. Mirror images of the pages printed on transparent or semitransparent film are traditionally used as imput to offset printing.

Mirror printed texts can be attached to inside of glass doors or, e.g. ambulances. The intention is to be read right from the outside or in the mirror.

Moire

Undesirable screen patterns that occur when screened reproductions are made from halftone proofs. In process colour reproduction, a moire pattern is caused by improper screen angles in halftones.

Page layout

Page layout is the part of graphic design that handles the arrangement and style treatment of elements (content) on a page.

Page number

Depends on the selected pagination (or page numbering) system.

PDF file

Files created by Adobe Acrobat software. De facto standard for distribution of printed materials both in the printed industry and on the Internet.

The files can be viewed and commented with the free Adobe Acrobat Reader application. The general idea is that the layout and looks do not change regardless of the computer, on which the material is viewed.

Perforation

A line of small holes for tearing at a particular place .

Photoshop

A popular computer program of Adibe Corp. for processing of photos and drawings. The de facto standard in this area.

Pixels

Pictures are made up of little dots called pixels. Pixel stands for PICture ELement. They are arranged horizontally and vertically. Get close enough to your computer screen (or use a magnifier) and you'll see them.

Postscript

PostScript (PS) of Adobe is a dynamically typed concatenative programming language created in 1982. PostScript is used widely as a page description language in the electronic and desktop publishing areas.

Once the de facto standard for electronic distribution of final documents meant for publication, PostScript is being replaced by one of its own descendants, the Portable Document Format or PDF.

Prepress

The processes that occur between the input of a written manuscript and original artwork, and the manufacture of a printing plate, ready for mounting on a printing press.

In today's prepress shop, the form of delivery from the customer is usually electronic, either a PDF or application files created from such programs as InDesign or QuarkXPress.

Price estimate

A preliminary cost analysis provided by a printer on how much a printing job will cost, listed in terms of price per piece and total cost per thousand. Different from a quote, which is a legally binding, signed agreement between a printer and a publisher in which the cost is guaranteed not to fluctuate for a specified period of time.

Price quote

In printing, a legally binding agreement between a printer and publisher that lists the costs of a particular print job, in which the price does not fluctuate for a specified period of time. More solid than a printing estimate, which is a preliminary report on how much a print job is expected to cost but is not legally binding.

Print area on a page

The part of a page which contains text and/or illustrations. Does not include the margins, where they do not contain printed content. Includes the page numbers, headers and footers.

Print run

The number of copies printed of a material in a printing house or copy shop.

Proof (-reading)

Proof-reading traditionally means reading a proof copy of a text in order to detect and correct any errors, mostly in spelling and grammar. This includes misspellings (or correctly spelled words used in the wrong place, the bane of computer spell chequers, sic), sentence fragments, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word omissions, etc. Proofreading is typically the last stage before printing.

Resolution

A computer-related term increasing in popularity with the advent of digital photography. Depends on the number of pixels in a picture image. Measured in dots (pixels) per inch or per centimeter of the image.

RIP

Raster image processing (RIP) is the process of turning vector digital information such as a PostScript file into a high-resolution raster image.

A RIP can be a software component or a firmware program inside a PostScript printer.

Signature

A sheet with several pages printed on it; it folds to page size and is bound with other signatures to form a book.

The typical printing press signature is 16 pages. This depends on the size of the book.

Sleeve

External removable extra cover for a book. Usually made of paper, with or without coating, or plastic. Typical of the more expensive luxury publications. Inside cover is usually of the harcover type.

Spine of a book

The side of a book which is visible, when the book is put on the shelf. Usually contains the title of the book and name of the author.

Spot color

A printing press ink, which is used as-is and is not produced from a combination of other colours.

See Process colours.

Stripping

À dying trade in which film negatives are arranged in a pattern, which will create a series of pages. There is an individual negative for each color to be printed on a printing press. Colors are arranged in order to fit together with the other colors to be printed. This process has generally been eliminated through the use of digital prepress.

TIF

Tagged Image File Format (abbreviated TIFF) is a file format for storing images, including photographs and line art. Originally created by the company Aldus (PageMaker desktop publishing software) it is as of 2009 under the control of Adobe Systems. The TIFF format is widely supported by image-manipulation applications, by publishing and page layout applications, by scanning, faxing, word processing, optical character recognition and other applications.

Title page

The title page of a book is the page at or near the front which displays its title, and author, as well as other information.

Trimming

When a book is printed the pages are laid out on the plate so that after the printed sheet is folded the pages will be in the correct sequence. Trimming involves cutting approximately 3-5 mm off top, bottom and fore-edge (the edge opposite to the spine) as part of the binding process in order to remove the folds so that the pages can be opened.

Typing, typesetting

1. Inputting text into a device, such as a typewriter, or a computer, by pressing keys on a keyboard.

2. Formatting a book's content to include typeface, font size, and layout.

     
     
 
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